MODERN STATE AND REGIONAL FEATURES OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION SPECIALIZATION IN TRANSCARPATHIA
Introduction. Efficiency of functioning agriculture, in modern conditions, largely depends on the rational placement and specialization of production, which in turn ensure the efficient use of natural and climatic conditions and resources of individual enterprises, industries, regions, and the state. The Transcarpathian region is endowed with particularly diverse conditions, as it is located in three natural-economic zones (mountain, foothill, lowland).
Purpose. The main purpose of this study is to highlight the features of specialization of agricultural production due to the natural and economic features of the selected areas of the region and to determine their impact on agriculture in the Transcarpathian region.
Results. The analysis of specialization of agricultural production in the Transcarpathian region showed that, in general, in the recent years, the structure of agricultural production remained relatively evenly distributed between the crop and livestock production, and there were slight changes in the direction of increasing or decreasing production volumes. The largest number of economic entities in the agricultural sector of the region's economy are households. Agricultural enterprises specialize more in the production of crop products, and households favor the livestock industry. Based on the analysis of the dynamics of crop production and livestock production in the context of districts and natural and economic zones, it is evident that agricultural producers of the foothills of the Transcarpathian region are the ones most important for animal husbandry, namely cattle, sheep and goat breeding. The crop producers specialize in the lowland area of the region, where they mainly grow grain and potatoes, and more than half of the fruits and berries are harvested in the foothills of the region.
Originality. Regional specialization, which is formed on the basis of the influence of climatic conditions and factors, as well as the geographical location of natural-economic zones and administrative-territorial units, should take into account the resource supply of the region, including land as a resource and the corresponding qualified personnel, should take into account the situation, which has developed in the market of agricultural products. At the same time, production efficiency will be high in all types of farms, if their specialization fully meets the specified conditions and the transition to strategic management in all branches of production and sales of products is made. The complicated natural conditions of the Transcarpathian region, on the one hand, become an obstacle to the development of agricultural production, especially crop production in the territories with mountainous terrain, and on the other - a special ecological and natural environment forms favorable conditions for the development of such strategic and economic zones in the mountainous and foothill zones activities such as farm or rural tourism, and promotes the production of environmentally friendly products by landowners.
Conclusion. Based on the conducted research, it is revealed that specialized farms have an advantage in the results of agricultural activity. Specialization helps to increase the economic efficiency of agricultural production, to choose the optimal channels of sale, to improve the material and technical base, to improve the quality and competitiveness of products, to select the production that is the one that is in demand among consumers and is formed on the basis of consideration of natural climatic factors and geographical location natural and climatic zones, administrative regions, which will allow to produce competitive products.
Andriychuk, V.G.(2002). Economics of agricultural enterprises: a textbook. 2nd ed., suppl. and recycled. Kyiv: KNEU (in Ukr.)
Kaninsky, P.K. (2006). Development of specialization of agricultural enterprises of forest-steppe zone of Ukraine in the conditions of agrarian transformations: author. diss. Doctor of Economics. Sciences: 08.07.02. Kyiv: Nat. Sciences. center «Inst. agrar. economy» UAAS (in Ukr.)
Reiter, N.I. (2016). Theoretical approaches to determining the essence of specialization of agricultural production. Bulletin of the Kharkiv National Technical University of Agriculture named after Peter Vasylenko, 172, 154-163. (in Ukr.)
Begenar, I.M. (2016). State of development of specialization in agrarian business structures. Economy and management of the national economy. The Nikolaev nat. Univ. Sukhomlinsky, 10, 128-133. (in Ukr.)
Moroz, Yu.Yu.(2010). Monitoring of agricultural specialization. Zhytomyr, ZhSTU Bulletin. 1 (51), 194-199. (in Ukr.)
Yavorskaya, T.I. (2013). The impact of specialization on the efficiency of agricultural production in farms. Collection of scientific works of the Taurida State Agrotechnological University (Economic Sciences). Melitopol, 3 (23), 214-221 (in Ukr.)
Tabenskaya, O.I. (2008). Transformational changes in the agricultural sector of Ukraine in the context of Ukraine's accession to the WTO. Coll. Sciences. works on materials All-Ukrainian. Research Practice Conf. young scientists (Vinnitsa, October 16, 2008). VSAU, Vinnitsa, 108-112 (in Ukr.)
Statistical collection Agriculture of Transcarpathia for 2010-2017 (2018).In G.D. Hrynyk (Ed.). Uzhgorod: Main Department of Statistics in the Transcarpathian Region (in Ukr.)
Statistical Annual of Transcarpathia for 2017 (2018).In G.D. Hrynyk (Ed.). Uzhgorod: Main Department of Statistics in the Transcarpathian Region (in Ukr.)
Statistical collection Agriculture of Ukraine for 2017 (2018). In O.M. Prokopenko (Ed.). Kyiv: State Statistics Service of Ukraine (in Ukr.).
- There are currently no refbacks.