TRENDS AND STRUCTURE OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS IMPORTS
Introduction. Ukraine annually imports more than 20 commodity groups for about a hundred commodity items, of which four (I-IV) out of 24 items are agricultural and food products. At the same time, the balance of foreign trade activity was negative overall (-9.6 billion USD), while in the agricultural sector products it was positive (+13.6 billion USD). For the period 2001-2018, the total value of imports increased from $ 15.8 billion. Up to $ 57.2 billion US, or 3.6 times, with a negative balance each year. Agricultural imports increased from $ 1.1 billion to $ 5.1 billion US, or 4.5 times, with a positive balance annually. The pace of increase in the value of imports has varied over the years. The highest indicators of the total value of imports for the period under review were observed in 2008 and 2012, respectively at $ 85.5 and $ 84.7 billion with a negative balance of $ 18.6 and $ 15.8 billion USA. The cost of imports by years of agri-food products was unstable, with the largest sums in 2012 and 2013, which amounted to $ 7.5 and $ 8.0 billion, respectively. US with a positive balance annually. Thus, there is a tendency to increase the purchase of imports of agricultural products. The predominance of imports over exports is a significant drawback of foreign trade activity, which not only causes irrational use of foreign exchange earnings, but also reduces the value of the country's national potential.
Purpose. The purpose of the scientific article was to analyze the dynamics of the cost of purchase on imports of agro-food products and to determine its place in the structure of imports by the economy as a whole for the period 2001-2018 and to develop proposals for increasing domestic production.
Results. It is established that the cost of purchase for imports of agricultural and food products for the period under review increased from $ 1.1 billion. Up to $ 5.1 billion USA. Dynamics and structure of agri-food imports by commodity groups І-ІV according to UCCFT of Ukraine are investigated. It was found that commodity group IV - finished food products (46.3%) with the amount of USD 2.3 billion accounted for the largest share in the structure of purchase costs for imports of agricultural and food products. USA. It was found that the highest growth rates were recorded in the costs of imports of products of commodity group II - products of plant origin (5.7 times) and group I - live animals and products of animal origin (5 times). It is established that the largest share belongs to item 03 - fish and crustaceans (59.86%) in the structure of the cost of purchase of goods of import of commodity group I - fish and crustaceans (59.86%), which increased by 17.2 pp during the studied period. ., and the cost of imports increased 7 times. It has been researched that in structure of cost of purchase costs on import of products of commodity group II - products of vegetable origin in 2018 the largest share belongs to item 08 - edible fruits and nuts (34,4%) and item 12 - seeds and fruits of oilseeds (26.0%), with an increase in the cost of their purchase, respectively 8.2 and 11.8 times. It is established that the increase in the cost of purchase costs for imports of products of item 10 - cereals was 3.8 times with their share in the structure of crop production 12.5%. The main amount is spent on the purchase of corn seeds.
Originality. Studies have shown that foreign economic activity in the field of agricultural production is carried out in the following areas:
- purchase on import of agro-food products, the own production of which does not meet the growing needs of consumers in terms of quantity, quality, species nomenclature, assortment, packaging and price;
- purchase on import of agro-food products, the own production of which is impossible because of inconsistency of natural and climatic conditions;
- purchase of imports of products and goods of technical and technological nature, which are necessary to ensure the functioning of the agro-industrial sector, whose production in Ukraine is in decline, or their volumes do not meet the needs of enterprises and organizations to ensure the production processes in innovative products and goods (new varieties) and hybrids of agricultural plants, new more productive animal and poultry breeds, etc.).
In the course of the research, the dynamics of the cost of purchase on agricultural and food imports was analyzed and its place in the structure of imports on the economy as a whole during the period 2001-2018 was determined. from $ 1.1 billion Up to $ 5.1 billion USA. Accordingly, the value of imports on the economy as a whole increased from $ 15.8 billion. Up to $ 57.2 billion US, or 3.6 times. At the same time, the share of imports of agro-food products increased from 7.1% to 8.9%, or by 1.8 pp, which indicates that the import growth rate was ahead.
It was found that commodity group IV - finished food products (46.3%) with the amount of USD 2.3 billion accounted for the largest share in the structure of purchase costs for imports of agricultural and food products. However, their share dropped from 52.2% to 46.3%, or 6.2 pp, during the period under review, while the volume of expenditures increased by almost 4 times.
The highest growth rates were recorded in the costs of imports of products of commodity group II - products of plant origin (5.7 times) and group I - live animals and products of animal origin (5 times), which testifies to the growing consumer demand for these products and its insecurity. market.
In the structure of the cost of purchase of imports of products of commodity group II - products of vegetable origin in 2018, the largest share belongs to item 08 - edible fruits and nuts (34.4%), and item 12 - seeds and fruits of oilseeds (26, 0%), with an increase in the cost of their purchase respectively 8.2 and 11.8 times, which indicates the growing consumer demand for the domestic market insecurity of these products, which needs to intensify the development of the respective industries.
The insignificant share of costs (about 7%) for the purchase on import of vegetables - item 07, but the largest increase (by 22.6 times) indicates the need to study the structure of purchase of vegetables by their types and assortment and the available possibilities of their production in Ukraine.
It is established that the increase in the cost of purchase costs for imports of products under item 10 - cereals was 3.8 times with their share in the structure of crop production 12.5%. The main amount is spent on the purchase of corn seeds. This demonstrates the need for the development of seed breeding and maize seed directly in the country.
It is established that the largest share belongs to item 03 - fish and crustaceans (59.9%) in the structure of the cost of purchase of imports of products of commodity group II - fish and crustaceans (59.9%), which increased by 17.2 pp during the studied period. ., and the cost of imports increased 7 times. This indicates the growing consumer demand for fish and the need to step up the development of the fisheries industry in Ukraine.
Conclusion. Globalization transformations and rapid changes in natural and climatic conditions make it necessary to intensify the scientific search and development and introduction of innovative products of domestic production (varieties, hybrids of crops and species and species of animals), adapted to changing zonal natural and climatic features.
The unlimited possibilities of thinking of a conscious highly intelligent person, the speed of movement of scientific thought and scientific and technological progress cause the variability of the foreign trade environment, significantly influence the change in the structure of supply and demand of goods and services and the level of market price. Accordingly, there is a need of the society and the state for a stable sufficient level of funding for scientific research, research and development in order to solve the problem and prospects of development of all traditional sectors of the national economy, including the agrarian sector, formation of a branched infrastructure of the components of the production process of production of final products, goods and services, respectively. to the needs of both domestic and foreign consumers. This is due to the need to avoid the negative consequences of under-production, to promote the stable supply of agri-food and non-food products to the domestic market in accordance with the needs of consumers.
In addition, it will, firstly, lead to the industrial preservation of manufactured products and the avoidance of losses in the event of overproduction; secondly, the reduction of the hype in the under-production of products caused by adverse natural and climatic conditions of its production and restraining the rate of increase of the market price. Therefore, the need for consumers to compete for products will be met.
At the same time, the actualization of scientific researches in the field of new technologies of industrial storage, deep processing and refining of manufactured products (drying, freezing, cooling, etc.), deepening of economic relations in the direction of increasing the motivation of production teams in the manufacture of finished commodity products with greater added value is archiving cost
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