International movement of qualified human resources: motives, directions and consequences
Introduction. Nowadays outrunning socioeconomic development of countries is the result of their capability to accumulate qualified human resources in good supply. Knowing that developed countries by various means try to enlarge their human capital importing highly-skilled labour force from abroad. At the same time developing countries, being unable to provide their specialists with appropriate living and working conditions, are forced to let qualified human resources go oversea. Such “brain drain” promotes socioeconomic and technological leadership of the former as well as aggravates underdevelopment of the latter.
Purpose – to reveal basic motives that influence international flows of highly-skilled labour force formation; to single out main directions of qualified labour migrants interstate shift; to analyse socioeconomic consequences of “brain drain” for key participants of the process; to make proposals for source countries concerning minimization of negative outcomes of qualified staff international movement.
Results. Discovering peculiarities of qualified human resources international movement in recent time fundamental motives forming international flows of highly-skilled labour force in the world were revealed. In particular it was proved that shaky material situation as well as the absence of necessary conditions for professional self-fulfillment make highly-skilled labour force migrate. Also outlined main directions of qualified labour migrants interstate shift: argued that basically qualified human resources move from the developing countries to developed ones, less often – in the opposite direction. Characterised positive and negative socioeconomic consequences of “brain drain” in certain groups of countries.
Originality. Asserted that the developing (source) countries, despite all the objections of some western and Ukrainian scientists, suffer from the process. As a result the proposals for source countries concerning minimization of negative outcomes of qualified staff international movement were made.
Conclusion. Source countries of highly-skilled labour force can reckon on socioeconomic and technological development only in case of their human capital preservation. For this reason they should not only do their best in order to improve living standards domestically, but also demand from the developed countries a fair compensation for rendered “intellect” assistance.
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