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Introduction. One of the technologies that stimulates the country's innovative development by accelerating the diffusion of innovation is biotechnology. The peculiarity of biotechnology is that they penetrate almost all spheres of life: from agriculture to the social sphere. The experience of developed countries that have made the transition to an innovative economy shows the optimality of clusters for the optimal course of diffusion processes in the biotechnology sector. The use of the cluster approach allows to strengthen the integration of education, science and production, infrastructure elements and will intensify innovation activities in the regions. Cluster policy must be an integral part of government innovation policy. Facilitating the formation of clusters does not require direct financial support from the state, but the creation of tax benefits, reduction of bureaucratic barriers through the participation of government agencies in these structures and the formation of government guarantees will be a significant impetus for their development.
The purpose of the article is to determine the organizational and economic factors of development of biotechnology clusters.
Results. Organizational and economic factors of biotechnology clusters based on the principles of self-organization, complementarity and interdependence, flexibility, synergy, balance and include managerial, educational-scientific, production-cooperative, financial, information and supply-marketing interaction with in order to achieve a synergy effect on the effectiveness of production and research activities, expanding sources of funding for innovative development of biotechnology companies. The expediency of the company's participation in biotechnology clusters, which provide for assessing the effect not only in terms of costs and benefits, but also taking into account the growing flexibility of participating companies on economic parameters due to network resources, social and environmental effects. It is determined that the process of cluster formation involves the gradual implementation of the following measures: analysis of industries in the region to determine the specialization of the cluster; identification of possible members of the cluster, study of the effectiveness of their activities and potential opportunities for the use of by-products of enterprises; formation of joint social, logistical, transport and production infrastructure; forecast of future costs, sources of investment resources and the magnitude of the effects.
Originality. The factors of successful development of biotechnology clusters in world practice are revealed: creation of conditions for scientific researches, development of entrepreneurial initiative and social capital in the form of interaction between all participants and provision of differentiated financing system. The organizational and economic mechanism of formation and functioning of biotechnological clusters is offered.
Conclusion. Theoretical substantiation of the processes of formation and functioning of biotechnological clusters through the definition of management, supply and marketing, educational and scientific, production and cooperation, financial and informational forms of interaction between its participants. This mechanism confirms that in order to intensify the development of biotechnology, it is necessary to achieve multilateral interaction between cluster members. It is substantiated that the application of this mechanism will cause the following synergetic effects: resource, production, educational, scientific, technological, managerial, infrastructural, informational, marketing, social.
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