CONCEPTS OF FORMATION OF THE MIDDLE CLASS

Viktoriya Denysenko, Victor Martinovych

Анотація


Introduction. The contradictory nature of the reforms conducted in Ukraine affects the main spheres of the development of society, an important component of this process ­is the changes in the social structure of society. The presence and sufficient share of the middle class in the system of social stratification is an important indicator of the successful development of the national economy.

Analysis of recent research and publications. The problems of the formation and development of the middle class as a whole are considered developed by modern economic science, which is reflected in the numerous works of both foreign and domestic economists.

First of all, it is necessary to single out the works of such scientists as M. Weber, G. Hegel, J. Galbraith, K. Marx, and also such domestic economists as L. Antoshkina, N. Boretska, I. Bondar, and others. In their works the main attention is paid to the selection criteria for inclusion in the middle class, among which some authors take into account only the attitude to the means of production, others - only the role in the social organization of labor, the amount of income received, or other characteristics such as the level of education and qualifications, professional-qualifications status, professional ethics, lifestyle and even self- identity.

As we see, given the specific nature of the problem developed by modern economic science, many of its aspects remain insufficiently researched. In particular, a deep analysis of the criteria for inclusion to the middle class and methods for calculating its number are required.

Purpose. The purpose is to determine the basic concepts of the formation of the middle class.

Results. It is established that the middle class is a social entity occupying an intermediate position in the socio-economic structure of the region between regional elites and low-income groups; performs the functions of a stimulant of the economy, a stabilizer of socio-political life and a standard of "norm" in overcoming regional inequality.

The main criteria for determining the middle class are materially measured criteria - property (real estate, land, means of production), qualification and education, high social status and self-determination of the middle class, income level and the ability to adapt and successfully operate in market conditions. It is optimal to use the criterial principle, which makes it possible to single out the middle class in the socio-economic structure of the region on the basis of a certain system of criteria.

Conclusion. Domestic scientists prior to the main signs of the definition of the middle class include materially measured criteria - property (real estate, land, means of production), qualification and education, high social status and self-determination of the middle class, income level and the ability to adapt and successfully operate in market conditionsBut we need to clearly distinguish between economic and non-economic factors in the formation of the middle class. Economic factors include the presence or absence of means of production, a place in the organization of social production, the amount of incomes received, the professional and qualification level, etc.  Noneconomic factors include lifestyle, religious, cultural, etc. In our opinion, it is optimal to use the criterial principle that allows us to distinguish the middle class in the socio-economic structure of the region on the basis of a certain system of criteria.


Ключові слова


middle class; functions; criteria; property; education; income

Посилання


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Marx, K. & Engels, F. (1958). Collected works. [2 nd ed.], vol. 10. M .: Gospolitizdat (in Russ.).

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Bondar, I. K. (2003). Economic conditions of formation of the middle class. Formation of market relations in Ukraine: Collection. Science works. 7-8 - K., P.46-49. (in Ukr.).

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Michkovskaya, N. Statistics on self-assessment. Retrieved from: http://times.liga.net/artcles/gs 011762.html

Antonyuk, V.P. (2007) Formation and use of human capital in Ukraine: Socio-economic assessment and development: [Monograph]. Donetsk: NAS of Ukraine. Institute of the Economy of Industry (in Ukr.).

Bondar, I.K., Bugaenko, E.O. et al. (2004). Middle class of Ukraine: theory and current trends of formation. K.: Publishing House "Corporation". (in Ukr.).

Avraamova, E.M. et al. (2003). Middle classes in Russia: economic and social strategies. Moscow. Carnegie Moscow Center. – Moscow: Gendalf. (in Russ.).


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