POSSIBILITY AND APPROPRIATENESS OF USE OF FOREIGN EXPERIENCE IN THE SPHERE OF PENSION PROVISION IN UKRAINE
Introduction. For more than 20 years, attempts have continued to carry out pension reform in Ukraine. However, the result is not yet comforting. The existing pension system of Ukraine does not provide sufficient security for pensioners. The situation worsens for several reasons: workers do not have any incentives to pay pension contributions; the chronic deficit of the Pension Fund puts pressure on the budget; very high pension costs very high "labor taxes". That is why there is a need to analyze the foreign experience of pensions, which is an invaluable source of knowledge and an example for the reform of the pension system in Ukraine.
Purpose. Analysis of successful experience in building pension systems in the world. Study of the conditions that are necessary for effective reform of the pension system in Ukraine.
Results. Today, in most countries, there are combined pension systems. They combine state distribution, mandatory and voluntary accumulative elements. The aging of the population forms new problems in the world. An increase in the proportion of pensioners increases the burden on pension systems. Every year more and more people age over 65 years. This means fewer active workers who can pay contributions to pension funds. Ukraine is also subject to this worldwide trend. Rapid aging of the population, a significant increase in the number of pensioners and a decrease in the economically active population forces the country to look for the most appropriate model for building a pension system.
Countries of the post-Soviet space have a lower rating in the Global Age Watch Index, however, Ukraine takes the worst position among these countries. The difficult demographic situation in Ukraine significantly complicates the development and implementation of the pension reform. One of the main demographic problems of Ukraine is very high premature mortality and one of the lowest life expectancy in Europe. Also in Ukraine, the average life expectancy of men is lower than in most developed countries. Among the post-Soviet countries, only Ukraine plans to increase the retirement age, despite the shortening of life expectancy. We try to have a similar retirement age with more developed countries, but the government does not take into account the low quality of life, low income and high inflation.
Originality. For a complete analysis of the pension system, one should take into account the level of the country's economic development, the level of inflation, the minimum cost of living, and the birth rate, the quality of life of the population, the period of retirement and the size of pensions. The formation of an effective pension system requires reforms in related areas, such as financial, tax and social. The reform focuses on reducing the chronic deficit of the pension fund, modernizing and improving the efficiency of the functioning of the solidarity level of the pension system. It does not concern the problem of forming the second and third levels of the pension system.
Conclusion. Ukraine suffers from the economic crisis not only in the pension system, but also in the economy as a whole. Pension reform should be implemented only after all three levels of the pension system begin to work. In the current conditions, the most effective type of pension system is a mixed type. The only way to improve the current state of the pension system in Ukraine is to implement the funded system and non-government funds.
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