The conceptual study unit of crises and their impact on development of economic systems
Introduction. The term «crisis» to some extent affects the development methodology of any management decision are discrybed. The practice of modern economic development shows the actual impossibility of avoiding crises, which causes the importance and urgency of prompt recognition, understanding the nature and prerequisites of the crisis processes, justification of measures to transfer economic systems to a new level of functioning.
Purpose. The research aims at disclosure of definitions and roles of crises in the economic development of economic systems.
Results. The interpretations researched of the term "crisis" reflect two basic approaches to the analysis of crises occurring in the works of foreign and domestic authors - critical and positivist ones. With a negative attitude to the crisis they focus on its destructive influence on the functioning of the economic system. A positive attitude is based on the understanding the crisis as an objective process associated with the development of the system. Hence, the crisis is a turning point in the sequence of processes, events and activities. The research shows that the defining factor of the optimal commercial behavior of economic systems on both the macro and micro levels is their non- equilibrium self-organization, the functional stability in non-equilibrium states. If the equilibrium is a necessary condition for the functioning of economic systems, then the non-equilibrium represents a significant moment of transition to a new qualitative state when the system acquires a higher level of organization. Only when the economic system loses its functional strength, the processes of self-organization and formation of new efficient structures arise. While acquiring state of stability under new conditions of functioning, economic system goes through its equilibrium state as intermediate stages on the trajectory of non-equilibrium self-organization.
Conclusion. The possibility of development of economic systems must be linked with the state of instability as with selectable options for development, attractors. Therefore, most experts on the example of the global financial crisis of 2008-2009 indicate that the crisis is not only causing great losses, but also opens up great opportunities. Duality of crisis means that it causes the occurrence of a turning point in the functioning of economic systems and usually causes two ways out: the successful overcoming of crisis and entering a new level of development or degradation and preserving the existing trends. Thus, the consequence of the crisis may either be a development of the economic system or the destruction of it, either solving the accumulated contradictions or the emergence of a new crisis. The crisis is a certain stage of development and functioning of the economic system, which determines the objective necessity of qualitative transformation. In this connection it is necessary to deepen the analysis and study of the crisis and the crisis events in order to identify the main factors that contribute to crisis. Such studies can reveal features of economic systems development, determine the mechanism of forming the trends of their evolution. In addition, they will not just carry out passive regulation of a system, but based on precise knowledge of its properties, structure and characteristics of the stages of evolution, to generate the necessary impact on the system, provide targeted stimulation of certain bifurcation of the system to build its optimal structure.
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