Viktoriia Opalko


Introduction.  Modern trends in recent decades indicate that a society, that makes a scientific search of effective use of achievements of technological progress, generates inequality in a significant scale. This situation requires a detailed study of the concept and the determinants of inequality within the countries and between them in terms of financial instability, economic imbalances and the need for sustainable development.

Purpose. Detailing the nature of inequality and identifying its determinants for forming the basis of reducing inequalities in practice in terms of sustainable development.

Results. The research has shown that inequality has a layered structure, it can be seen at the global, regional, national and micro levels. Inequality is a multifaceted phenomenon and is manifested in all spheres of society. It is also argued, that inequality - is the existence of people in a situation in which they have unequal access to resources. Economic inequality has increased significantly over the past 30 years inside the countries and between countries. The imbalance in the world is increasing and every year the wealth is concentrated in a smaller part of the population. Wide inequality is the socio-economic inequality, which is a situation where people are living in conditions in which they have limited or unequal access to resources, have unequal life chances and opportunities to meet the needs. In modern terms determinants of inequality are: social stratification and polarization of society; different income levels; wealth; power; prestige; political, legal and socio-cultural differences; level of social capital; ethnic differences; social, spatial mobility and others. If there is an equal access to social, economic, cultural, educational and technological opportunities for all people, all nations can have the same potential to achieve socio-economic status.

Originality. Used an evolutionary approach to the study of the nature of inequality and covered the views of scientists from Plato to the present. Based on the prevalence of determinants there are defined types of inequality and there is also given their author's interpretation taking into the account the specific development. There is also a grounded necessity to address the causes of inequality to sustain equal opportunities for  socio-economic development and avoid conflicts and terrorism.

Conclusion. Inequality in all systems existed and excited people in all ages. Socio-economic heterogeneity of the society and unequal distribution of resources is one reason for assigning by some people power, property, prestige, and the absence of these determinants in others reduces the possibility of full development. The general trend, which is observed in the world and in almost all countries in recent decades - a growing inequality in the various segments of public life, which naturally affects the quality of economic development.

Ключові слова

inequality; socio-economic inequalities; determinants of inequality; sustainable development.


Plato (1971). The Complete Works of Plato in 3 volumes. Translation by A.N. Egunova. V. 3, part 1. Moscow. Retrieved from: http://psylib.org.ua/books/plato01/26gos01.htm (in Russ.)

Aristotle (1983) Politics. The Complete Works of Aristotle in 4 volumes. Translation from Greek, S.А. Zhebeleva. V. 4. Moscow: Thought. Retrieved from: http://filosof.historic.ru/books/item/f00/s00/z0000353/st003.shtml (in Russ.).

K. Marx, K. & Engels, F. The archive of K. Marx and F. Engels (1924). Volume 01. In D. Ryazanov (Ed.). Moscow: State Publishing House. The Institute of K. Marx and F. Engels (in Russ.).

Darendorf, R. (1994). Elements of the theory of social conflict (Dahrendorf R. Elemente ernes Theorie des sozialen Konflikts // Dahrendorf R. Gesellschaft und Freiheit Mönchen. (Socis / Sociological Research). № 5, 142-147. (in Russ.).

Weber, M. (1994). Basic concepts of stratification. (SOCIS). No. 5, 169-183 (in Russ.).

Barber, B. (1972). The structure of social stratification and the trend of social mobility. [Trans. from English V.V. Voronina and E.E. Zinkovsky]. (American sociology). Moscow: Progress, 235-247 (in Russ.).

Durkheim, E. (1991). The Division of Labor in Society [Trans. from French]. Moscow: Science, 5-380 (in Russ.).

Bourdieu, P. (2005). Sociology of Social Space [Trans. from French]. In N. Shmatko (Ed.). S-Petersburg: Aleteya; Moscow: Institute of Experimental Sociology: Aleteya (in Russ.)

Sorokin, P. (1992) Social and Cultural Mobility. Man, civilization, society [Trans. from English]. In A.Yu. Sogomoghov (Ed.). Moscow: Politizdat (in Russ.).

Lenski, Gerhard & Lenski, Jean (1982). Human Societies: An Introduction to Macrosociology. New York : McGraw-Hill.

The Global Risks Report 2017. Retrieved from: https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2017/02/global-risks-report-2017

Piketty, Т. (2014). Capital in the Twenty-First Century. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. Retrieved from: https://dowbor.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/14Thomas-Piketty.pdf

Black, J. (2000). Economics. Explanatory dictionary / In I.M. Osadchaya (Ed.). Moscow: "INFRA-M", Publishing house "Ves Mir" (in Russ.).

Milanovic, В. (2016). Global Inequality. A New Approach for the Age of Globalization. Harvard University Press.

Philippe, Aghion & Williamson, Jeffrey, G. (2015). Economic growth, inequality and globalization. Theory, History and Political Practice. Moscow: The Case. Retrieved from: http://www.fb2archive.ru/delo/ekonomicheskiy-rost/ (in Russ.).

Determinants of social and economic inequality in modern Ukraine: monograph (2011). [Balakirev, O.M., Holovenko, V.A., Dmitruk, D.A. and etc.]. In A.M. Balakireva (Ed.). Kiev : NAS of Ukraine; Institute of Economics and Forecasting (in Ukr.).

Working for the Few. Political Capture and Economic Inequality. Retrieved from: http://wikiprogress.org/articles/initiatives/working-for-the-few-political-capture-and-economic-inequality/

Повний текст: PDF


  • Поки немає зовнішніх посилань.
2015 4 12   24 33
2016 1 2   3 4
2017 1 2 2 (Ч.2) 3 4 (Ч.1) 4 (Ч.2)
2018 1 2   3 4  
2019 1          



Зміст журналу