MODELS OF REDUCING INEQUALITIES IN GLOBAL DEVELOPMENT
Introduction. Recently there has been an increase in income inequality in almost all countries. This poses a threat to political, economic and social stability in the country. In most countries, there is no strategy to reduce inequality or little attention is paid to it. Therefore, there is a need to develop concrete practical measures to strike a balance between equal access to economic independence and social justice.
Purpose. The research aims is to analyze and identify models of reducing inequality (social justice) in the face of global development.
Results. Equity is seen as the optimum level of inequality, so a fair distribution of national income (national wealth) is the most important component of socio-economic development that affects economic growth and its determinants. It is established that social justice provides the necessary link between social structure of society and economic efficiency. Five concepts of social justice are analyzed: egalitarian, utilitarian, rosian, market and meritocratic, their principles, main tenets, advantages and disadvantages are revealed. It is established that most modern models of social justice (distribution) are mixed in nature and combine in different proportions the principles of market model, economic efficiency and social justice. Studying the experience of implementation of different models of social justice has allowed to establish the following features: they acquire signs of universality, institutions of equalization and incentive policy are being formed, they are changing according to the spatial, external and internal challenges of the present. It is argued that in today's global development, justice models are gradually transforming and inclusive. The inclusive development model is a hybrid model of social justice that focuses on equitable distribution of goods, sustainable economic growth in incomes and the level of protection and quality of life.
Originality. The categorical apparatus of the concept of “justice” has been improved, which, unlike the existing ones, is proposed to be considered as a certain order that ensures equal opportunities for everyone and an honest distribution of wealth, benefits and income between members of society. Scientific and practical approaches to the formation of an inclusive model of social justice are proposed, which is a kind of clone of different models of justice, takes into account the combination of a number of development factors and uses swap mechanisms that will allow moving to a multi-level and multi-polar system of balanced development. Firstly, this is budgetary maneuvering to ensure a minimum level of social protection with the following options: 1) redistribution of current government spending; 2) an increase in tax revenue; 3) expansion of insurance premiums; 4) reducing the illegal movement of financial resources and establishing control over the dynamics of capital; 5) additional assistance, credit or restructuring of existing debt to free up resources; secondly, reorientation to the development of policies aimed at social protection of certain social categories and equalization of income (as is the practice in European countries); thirdly, ensuring conditions of social integration and equality in the provision of common services: expanding universal access to health care, education, and culture.
Conclusion. The problem of inequality is perceived when the distribution of common goods is considered unfair. In practice, countries use various types and elements of socio-economic policy that dominate and are implemented in models of state development: liberal-democratic, corporatist (continental), conservative, social-democratic. The universal model of reducing inequality should be an inclusive model of social justice, which follows the principles of: accessibility of basic needs for each member of society; equal access to basic needs: education, medicine, etc.; compensation - the actual distribution between persons of the benefits (income) that the company receives from cost-effective changes. An inclusive justice model should be accompanied by a steady increase in population incomes, economic opportunities, security and quality of life, and not just simple GDP growth.
Davos World Economic Forum (2018). Part 2: Globalism and Democracy. February 6, 2018. Retrieved from: https://www.mfaua.org/uk/publications/vsesvitnii-ekonomichnyi-forum-u-davosi-chastyna-2-hlobalizm-ta-demokratiia (Last accessed: 20.10.2019).
Keynes, J. M. (2009). Economic Opportunities for Our Grandchildren. Economic Issues. No. 6. P. 60–67 (in Russ.)
World Inequality Report (2018). Key Points. Retrieved from: https://wir2018.wid.world/files/download/wir2018-summary-russian.pdf (Last accessed: 10.10.2019).
Therborn G. (2011). Inequalities and Latin America: From the Enlightenment to the 21st Century. Working Paper. N. 1. (in Ukr.).
Grinenko A. M. (2009). Social justice as a key principle in the implementation of the social policy of the state. Scientific works Black Sea State University named after Peter Mohyla complex "Kyiv-Mohyla Academy". 2009. Vol. 112, no. 99.
Skovronsky D. M. (2016). Modern models of the social state. Bulletin of the National University "Lviv Polytechnic". Series: Law: Collection of scientific works. No. 850. (in Ukr.).
Contradictions of economic efficiency and social justice and ways of ensuring their complementarity (2019). Scientific project. URL: http://ief.org.en/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/Controversy-Ex_Efficiency-Society_pdf.pdf (Last accessed 01.11.2019). (in Ukr.).
Aristotle (2015). Politics. Trans. from Greek., foreword and after S.A. Zhebeleva. Moscow: Academic project. (in Russ.).
Toftul M.G. (2014). Modern Ethics Dictionary: Dictionary. Zhytomyr: ZhDU them. I. Franko. (in Ukr.).
World Development Report (2006). Equity and Development. Trans. from English. World Bank publications. Moscow : Publishing house "All World". (in Russ.).
Rebkalo V. & Kozakov V. (2014). Archetypal features of the value potential of public administration from the point of view of the theory of utilitarianism and humanism. Public administration: theory and practice. Vol. 2 (special issue). Retrieved from: http://nbuv.gov.ua/UJRN/Pubupr_2014_2%28spets.__22 (Last accessed: 23.10.2019). (in Ukr.).
Rawls J. (2017). Theory of justice. Translation from English. Publisher: LENAND. (in Russ.).
Bell D. (1990). Cultural Contradictions of Capitalism. Ethical thought. Scientific journalistic readings. Moscow: Political Publishing House. (in Russ.).
Mises L. (2000). Human activity: A treatise on economic theory. Moscow: Economics. (in Russ.).
Mikhnenko A. & Shchur N. (2011). World models of social policy: lessons for Ukraine. Bulletin of the National Academy of Public Administration under the President of Ukraine. Iss. 2. (in Ukr.).
Marshall A. & Olkin I. (1983). Inequalities: the theory of majorization and its applications. Moscow: World. (in Russ.).
Alekhina S.V. (2014). The principles of inclusion in the context of the development of modern education. Psychological science and education. No 1 (in Russ.).
Elina D. D., Pakholkina T.M. & Zadumkina E.A. (2016). Inclusion in the understanding of modern society. Youth Scientific Forum: Humanities: Electr. Sat Art. by mat. XL Int. Stud. scientific-practical conferences. No. 11 (39). Retrieved from: https://nauchforum.ru/archive/MNF_humanities/11(39).pdf (Last accessed: 11.19.2019). (in Russ.).
Christensen, C., & Dorn, S. (1997). Competing notions of social justice and contradictions in special education reform. Journal of Special Education. V. 31. № 2.
- There are currently no refbacks.